Unit 1.4: Writing
First, individually, read the following essay, titled ‘Deserts’. Notice how the introductory and concluding paragraphs are written. Also notice how the topic sentence and the other details are linked in each body paragraph.
Next, discuss the following aspects with your partner.
- Discuss the introductory paragraph. Is the thesis statement at the end of the paragraph given in one sentence or two sentences? The thesis statement should contain all the key ideas that are covered in the essay.
- Underline the topic sentence in each body paragraph.
- Discuss how each topic area is explained with facts, examples, ideas, opinions, etc.
- See how the closing paragraph is written; underline the signalling closing word or phrase used. Also discuss how the paragraph briefly brings together the central idea, all the supporting ideas. Underline the concluding statement does it give an idea, suggestion, recommendation, etc.
It is difficult to imagine what a desert looks like without having seen one. A desert is a vast plain of sands and stones, having some mountains and hills of various sizes and heights. They are usually without roads or shelters. Sometimes, deserts have springs of water, which create green, grassy spots, with a few trees. One of the most remarkable deserts of the world is the Sahara Desert.
Springs of water are usually few and far apart in deserts. Where such springs are there, an oasis is formed. An oasis is an area in the desert where there is water and where plants grow. It is a place where tired travellers and their animals quench their thirst and find a shady place to rest. Were it not for these small springs and shady places, no human being could cross the vast stretch of burning sand. To be thirsty in a desert, without water, exposed to the burning sun without shelter, is one of the greatest sufferings that a human being can be exposed to.
One of the most remarkable deserts in the world is the Sahara Desert. This desert is a vast plain, but is slightly above the sea level. It is covered with sand and gravel, with a mixture of sea shells, and looks like the basin of an evaporated sea. Amid the desert, there are springs of water and oases. There are thirty-two of these that contain fountains and date palms; twenty of them are inhabited. They serve as stopping places for the caravans.
To conclude, a desert has vast areas of just sand, with no trees or forests. The only places where a few trees and some grass can be found are the oases, where the tired and thirsty travellers can rest. Travelling in the desert used to be, and sometimes still is, very risky and lack of water can lead to suffering and death. However, modern technology, including satellite phones and advanced modes of transport, have greatly reduced the risks and sufferings.
Now, work in pairs and write a descriptive essay of at least four paragraphs on one any of the following topics:
1. My village/ town/ city
2. A historical place
3. A scenic place
4. School playground
Here are the guidelines that you should follow:
a. Brainstorm for ideas
b. Select the ideas to be covered in the essay
c. Write an introductory paragraph with a clear thesis statement at the end of the paragraph. The thesis statement should contain all the key ideas that are to be covered.
d. Use a separate paragraph for each topic area.
e. Write a clear topic sentence for each key idea.
f. Include evidence (facts, quotations, etc,), examples (analogies, anecdotes etc.).
g. Add a closing or summary paragraph with a signalling closing word or phrase (to sum up, in the end, etc.), brief summary of the main points discussed in the essay, and a general concluding statement giving an idea, suggestion, recommendation, etc.
h. Follow grammar and punctuation rules.
i. Edit your work to see that you have covered points c — h, given above.
A village is a place that is far away from the noise of the city. About 60 % of Pakistan’s population lives in villages. My village is located in a low lying area that has a warm summer and a chilly winter. I visit my village every summer vacation. There is no need for air conditioners in a village because of the breeze. You can see the shining star at night while sleeping which you cannot do in the city.
In a village, you see everywhere greenery and almost every household has a minimum of one tree in their courtyards. Earlier houses were made of mud but now everything is changed now, houses are made up of concrete and other material. Villages are full of advantages such as fresh air, rivers, trees, pollution-free environment, earthy smell, fresh and organic food, and other many great things. Villages are the main source of food because of agricultural produce in villages that we consume. Villages have grown much in both populations and education.
Village peoples are harder workers than the people of the city. They have more strength and capacity than people in the city.The village lives are in peace. There is no quarrel and disagreement of any kind. The people of villages come forward in each other sorrows and happiness. They are very good at hospitality and have a helpful nature. The people of the village are friendlier than the people of the cities.
In last, we can say that villages are the backbone of the country’s economy. To feed this big population of country we need food which comes from the villages. This is one of the reasons that describe why villages are important for everybody. Earlier villages are lack in development but now things are changed. The villages are developing faster than the cities.
Mohenjo-Daro is widely recognized as one of the earliest cities of South Asia and the Indus Civilization. Mohenjo-Daro means the mound of the dead. It was one of the oldest cities in the world.
It was built around 2500 BCE and also it was the world’s earlier major city. It is situated at a distance of 27 kilometres from Larkana (the province of Sindh, Pakistan) on the right bank of the river. The city was discovered in 1924 by Sir John Marshall. Once it was a rich and busy city.
The streets and houses were made of baked bricks. Streets were wide and straight an elaborate draining system. It was the most advanced city of its time, with remarkably sophisticated civil engineering and urban planning.
There are so many findings that revealed that the peoples of this city have a highly developed civilization. These findings are seals, jewellery, toys, weapons, painted Pottery and etc. The best find is the head of a bull and the statue of a dancing girl that is around 10 centimetres long and it is 4500 years old.
When the Indus civilization went into sudden decrease around 1900 BC, it is abandoned. It existed at the same time as the civilisations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and Greece. The archaeological ruins of the city are designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In Pakistan, it is one of the national icons of the distant past.
The Scenic Place
Today i want to tell you about the Scenic place place where after a hectic day of work, i loved to visit for evening walk. There is nothing more refreshing than a quiet walk along the bank of the river. Walking is good for the human body. The sight of the river seems to have a peaceful effect on our minds. Every sight and sound inspires the spirit of rest and peacefulness.
What a delightful time I had on the river walking along the bank of the river I enjoyed the replying surface of the water the fish playing here and there and the birds singing their beautiful songs on the trees. I saw a herd of buffaloes swimming across the river how delightful it was to see the herdsman, and a small boy of about 12 years of age sitting on the last buffalo like a king and singing a song it attracted me beyond measure.
What a relief it was to escape from the noise and bustle of the city, the smoke of the factories, the haunting of motorcars, the shouts of hawkers and the cries and shouts of men and women.
I enjoyed especially the beauty of the sunset over the river. The setting sun sinking beneath the surface of the river is one of the best views of an evening walk by the riverside. The clouds on the Western horizon are lit up with the thousand brilliant colours. In a cloudless sky when the huge sun is sinking down this spectacle presented to the eye is full of majesty and calm beauty. For sometime after the sun has set the sky is filled with thousands of delicate tense with charms I and please the heart.
I returned home full of impression rich and vivid gathered during my walk by the riverside. I realized how glorious and delight were the beauties of nature.
Our school has a very big and beautiful playground. It is just close to the school. Our playground has an ideal location. It is nearly one square mile.
It has green grass looking like green velvet all around the ground. There are green shrubs and so many flowers which are beautifully trimmed. There is a gardener to water and look after all the plants.
Our physical training master encourages us to play games. He teaches us the games with great interest. We play football, hockey, cricket and volleyball. It is compulsory for every student to take part in games.
It is a very pleasant sight to see all the students at play. The headmaster and the Teachers also join the games. There is always a wave of joy and happiness everywhere.
First, individually read the following letters to the editor complaining about a problem/issue. Note the layout and the vocabulary, style and tone used.
August 19, 2018.
Subject: Traffic Accidents
In Pakistan hundreds of people die every year in road accidents. The media and the government focus a lot on terrorism, although traffic accidents are more common than acts of terrorism.
The main reasons for accidents are: poor conditions of vehicles, violations of traffic rules, use of mobile phones while driving, underage children driving, bad road conditions, and dim or no street lights.
The government should take effective steps, like creating awareness among people through the media and training the traffic police, so that the number of accidents is reduced.
A Concerned Citizen.
August 12, 2018. The Editor,
Subject: Banning Plastic Bags
Plastic bags cause land destruction because plastic can turn good fertile land into barren land. This is because, according to scientists, plastic takes more than 500 years to break down in a landfill.
Moreover, scientists have also found that plastic bags can be a source of many deadly diseases such as cancer, birth defects, immune damage and asthma.
According to the Minister of climate change, more than 55 billion plastic shopping bags are being used in Pakistan and their use is going up every year by about 15%.
The government should conduct surveys to see how much damage is caused to the environment and people’s health by plastic bags. Steps should then be taken to create awareness among the people about loss of fertile land for future generations and the health risks in using plastic bags. Moreover, laws should be passed to reduce the use of plastic bags to an essential minimum.
Next, work with a partner and analyse these letters by discussing the following aspects:
a. To which newspaper’s editor were these letters written?
Ans: The first letter is written to the editor of Daily dawn Newspaper and the second one is to Express Tribune
b. Are these letters addressed to a man or woman?
Ans: The first one is a man and the second one is a woman.
c. What problem has been identified in letter 1 and in letter 2?
Ans: In the letter 1 problem of “Traffic Accident” has been identified and in letter 2 the problem of plastic Bag has been identified.
d. Which of these letters gives reasons for the problem?
Ans: Letter one gives reasons for poor condition of vehicle, bad road condition, use of mobile phones, etc are the problem of Traffic Accidents.
e. Which of these letters gives suggestions?
Ans: the Letter 2 gives the suggestion of banning plastic bags.
f. Do we know who wrote both these letters?
The writer of the first letter is missed and the writer of the 2nd letter is Munir Altaf.
g. Why is the name of one writer missing?
Ans: Because the problem of letter one is general, not particular.
Work in pairs and write a letter to the editor complaining about a problem / issue, of the letter given above.
Follow these steps:
a. Brainstorm for ideas
b. Select the ideas to be covered in the letter
c. Decide the name of the newspaper and the gender of the editor
d. State the problem in paragraph 1.
e. List the possible reasons for the problem in paragraph 2
f. Give ideas/ opinions/ suggestions to the concerned body in paragraph 3.
g. Use the appropriate format, layout, vocabulary, and tone.
h. Edit to check for points c — g stated above
Letter to Editor
November 03, 2020.
Subject: Banning Plastic Bags
I write to your respected self to express my deep concern on the hazard of plastic bags. Plastic bags have wreaked catastrophic havoc in our country. The water bodies and the aquatic flora and fauna have been affected the most.
A walk along any river, lake, and beach is sufficient to know the consequences of this ubiquitous ugliness floating. Scientists in their recent research have found plastic to be much more toxic than previously expected. Plastic is making our environment highly toxic.
The state of the water bodies in the city is pathetic. The aquatic life has been choked to death. These water bodies have become the stinking, rotting places which are the breeding grounds of many diseases.
Through the columns of your reputed daily I appeal to the people and concerned authorities to look into the matter and ban plastic bags in the city. The need of the hour is to replace plastic with environmental friendly materials. All of us need to join our hands to fight this menace and preserve our beautiful environment. We must stop using plastic altogether.
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