The Uses and Errors of Participles
What is Participle
Definition: A participle is a word which has the features of the verb and adjective. So it is known as a verbal adjective.
Kinds of Participle:
1. Present Participle
2. Past Participle
3. Perfect Participle
1. Present Participle:
Formation of present participle
1st form of verb + ing
i. Play is verb, playing is participle
Swim verb, swimming is participle
Dance is verb, dancing is participle
By adding ing with the first form of verb we can make a participle.
Uses of present participle
1. Swimming is a good exercise. (Gerund)
(Here swimming is describing the condition of a boy so it is used
as an adjective )
2. Swimming boy is trying to save his life. (Present participle)
(Here dancing is followed by a helping verb so it is used here as a verb. As it is also describing some action. )
3. He is dancing with joy. (Present participle, verb)
(Here dancing is used as a verb as it is showing some action)
2. Past participle:
Past participle ends with ed, d, t or n and is used to indicate an action as completed.
A faded rose, A failed boy, the lost keys, the painted houses, etc.
Present participle adjectives describe the feelings produced by an object or person.
As ‘running boy’, ‘flying kite’
Past participle adjectives describe the feelings of a person produced by an object, person or activity. As ‘A retired officer’, ‘a damaged plane’.
3. Perfect Participle:
A perfect participle is formed with having +3rd form of verb to indicate an action as completed. As:
|Write||Having written (active voice)|
|Give||Having given (active voice)|
|Play||Having been played (passive voice)|
Errors in the use of participles:
1۔ A participle must be related to some noun or pronoun. A participle has a subject and related to this subject when used in a sentence.
Walking down the road, I heard the clock strike ten. (incorrect)
Note: In this sentence walking is a participle, but it is not followed by a subject. So write ‘I’ to make the complete sentence, start the sentence with as or while.
So the correct sentence is:
As I was walking down the road, I heard the clock strike ten. (correct
A. How to make a subject:
The subordinate clause of the sentence is generally always correct. If there is no subject in the sentence write I or They as a subject.
B. how to correct the sentence:
If there is a present participle in the principal clause, then start it with ‘as’ or ‘while’. After that write the subject ‘I’ or ‘They’ and use the tense of subordinate clause to complete the sentence.
Looking at the beautiful painting, I drop the cup in my hands.
As I am looking at the beautiful painting, I drop the cup in my hands.
(in this example the subordinate clauses is in simple present so in the principale clause there is used present continuous tense)
C. how to correct the sentence of past participle:
If a sentence starts with past participle use after’ or ‘when’ to start the sentence. Use I, We, They as the subject.
Alarmed at the news, the police were called on. (incorrect)
When we were alarmed at the news, we called the police. (correct)
(in this example the principal clause begins with past participle so here is used ‘when’ to start the sentence and ‘we’ as the subject of it)
Having entered the room, a snake was seen. (incorrect)
After we entered the room, a snake was seen. (correct)
Being a rainy day, we stayed inside. (incorrect)
As it was a rainy day, we stayed inside. (correct)
(always use it for weather sentences)
First part of sentence
As/while +(is, am, are, was, were)+ing.
Second part of sentence
when/after +subject+ 2nd or 3rd form of verb.
1. Waiting for a bus, a brick fell on me. (incorrect)
As I was waiting for the bus, a brick fell on me. (correct)
2. Delighted at the news, I rushed to inform my father. (incorrect)
When I delighted at the news, I rushed to inform my father. (correct)
Hopefully, your concept about The uses and errors of Participles is clear now, This lecture is part of the whole series of English Grammar by Miss Nabila Gulzar, For Other Lectures Click Here also We have an Essay on every topic, Check the complete list here. If you are Studying in Matric Free Video Lectures of Maths, Physics and English are here, and we have got you covered for I.COM Business Maths also.