What is Capital

Capital is defined as everything that improves your ability to produce value. Capital may be used to raise the worth of your company’s financial assets.

Business capital, in general, refers to financial assets owned by your organization that may be used to leverage growth and establish financial stability.

Along with land and labor, capital is a basic element of production. It is a company’s accumulated assets that may be used to produce money for the company. All goods manufactured or developed by people and utilized to produce products or services are considered capital. 

Capital can be physical assets, such as a manufacturing plant, or financial assets, such as an investment portfolio. Some consider human capital to be the knowledge, skills, and competencies that employees contribute to the development of income.

Capital in Accounting

When a person begins a business or profession, he brings some cash as well as other assets such as a building, furniture, and machinery. These will be his assets.

Assume you wish to open an accounting tuition center in your town and you have $ 5000 to get started. You are also doing tuition work in your room. So, you’re $ 5000 and your room will represent your profession’s capital, and it will be reflected on the liabilities side of your balance sheet.

Accounting Treatment for Capital

When someone contributes capital to the firm, the cash is debited, the name of the person who brought the money is credited in the journal entry and the capital account is mentioned with his name.

Journal Entry For Capital

Assume Mr. A. has invested $50,000 in his little firm.

  Mr. A Capital$50,000
Mr. A brought capital in the business

Capital in partnership accounting mainly refers to financial resources provided by each partner and utilized to start or operate a firm.

In company accounting, where the owner is not the same as the management, the definition of capital varies between sole proprietorship and partnership business organizations. Capital is gathered from shareholders in a corporation by issuing shares.

Shares constitute the tiniest portion of a company’s capital. Its face value might range from $1 to $1,000, depending on the nature of the firm.

Capital Calculation Formula

Capital = Total Assets – Total outside liabilities (Outside loan + current liabilities)


The Equity Share capital of Company = Total asset – total outside liabilities (Debenture + preference share capital + current liabilities)

Types of Capital

Following are the types of capital:

Debt Capital

Debt capital is defined as funds or assets obtained by borrowing from a lender. A business owner incurs debt in order to get financing. Conventional bank loans, for example, are debt capital.

Most business owners prefer debt capital over equity capital since they do not have to give up control of their company. The disadvantage of debt capital is that it might be more difficult to get. New businesses may have difficulty obtaining loan financing since banks are hesitant to support a firm with a poor track record.

Equity Capital

Investors put money into a company in return for ordinary or preferred shares, which is known as equity capital. This is a company’s primary finance, to which debt financing can be added.

Equity capital is defined as the net amount of any cash that would be returned to investors if all assets were liquidated and all corporate liabilities were satisfied. In certain situations, this figure may be negative since the market value of the company’s assets may be less than the total amount of liabilities.

Accounting defines equity capital as all components of the balance sheet’s shareholders’ equity section, which includes the par value of any stock sold, additional paid-in capital, retained earnings, and the offsetting amount of any treasury stock (repurchased shares).

Working Capital

The word working capital refers to the amount of capital that a company has readily available. That is, working capital is the difference between cash or quickly convertible into cash resources (Current Assets) and organizational obligations for which cash will be required shortly (Current Liabilities).

Current assets are resources that are currently in cash or will soon be converted to cash in the “regular course of business”.

Current Liabilities are obligations that will demand financial settlement in the “regular course of business” in the near future.

Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Trading Capital

It is the amount of money that a corporation or individual has available for the purchase and sale of various assets. It is necessary to have access to trading capital in order to engage in trading.

Each securities market has a legal minimum amount of trading capital that you must have before you can begin trading. This is to guarantee that you have adequate money to cover any losses.

Sources of Capital

Corporations frequently require external finance, or capital, to grow their company into new markets or regions, to engage in research and development, or to compete. Following are the sources of capital:

1. Retained Earnings

Companies exist to make a profit by selling a product or service for more than it costs to manufacture. This is the most fundamental source of funding for every business and, ideally, the principal means of bringing money into the organization. The net income remaining after costs and commitments is referred to as retained earnings or RE.

This cash can be utilized to support projects and expand the firm. However, they are frequently used to reward shareholders through dividend payments or share buybacks. 

2. Debt Capital

Debt capital is defined as funds or assets obtained by borrowing from a lender. A business owner incurs debt in order to get financing. Conventional bank loans, for example, are debt capital.

3. Equity Capital

Investors put money into a company in return for ordinary or preferred shares, which is known as equity capital. This is a company’s primary finance, to which debt financing can be added.

Capital Gain and Losses

When you make an investment, your aim is to create money for your company so that it may develop and flourish. And, as your investments build your firm, the cash itself may appreciate, resulting in capital gains.

Capital Gain

A capital gain occurs when the value of your capital grows. When your investment is worth more than its acquisition price, you have made a capital gain.

Assume you spend $1,500 on a machine. The equipment requires maintenance, but you may repair it without purchasing new parts. You then resell it for $2,000 since you increased its worth by mending it.

Take the ultimate sale price of the equipment ($2,000) and remove the initial purchase price ($1,500) to compute the gain in your business accounting records. Your accounting records should show a $500 gain.

Capital Loss

Not every investment will be worthwhile in the long run. This is when capital losses reach that stage. Your investment is worth less than its original purchase price if you suffer a capital loss.

Let’s go through the machine example once more. You buy the machine for $1,500, but you invest $600 on additional parts to repair it before selling it for $2,000.

You pay $2,100 on the machine and its replacement parts. Because you spent more money on the whole investment ($2,100) than you earned for the sale ($2,000), this is deemed a capital loss of $100. Make a $100 capital loss on your books.

Why is Capital Important

Capital plays an important part in the modern productive system in the following ways:

  • Production is impossible without finance. Modern manufacturing necessitates the use of intricate tools and sophisticated technology.
  • It boosts employee the productivity and, as a result, the economy as a whole. Because of the importance of technology and specialization, as well as a growing population, manufacturers have had to prepare for additional capital and related resources to meet the needs.
  • Capital aids in the creation of job possibilities. Workers are engaged to create both capital and consumer commodities.

Capital Vs Money

Although the terms “capital” and “money” are closely connected, they are not interchangeable. It’s critical to understand the distinction as a business owner.

Money is cash that you spend, whereas capital is cash (or another asset) that you invest. Unless you put the money in your pocket to work generating you more money, it is not a kind of capital.

People in finance frequently refer to capital as having “higher durability” than money since it may be re-invested indefinitely to produce additional value.

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