Active and Passive Voice

Active and Passive Voice

Active and Passive Voice

What is an Active voice?

Definition: A verb is in the active voice when its form shows that the subject does something or, in other words, the subject is the doer of the action.

What is Passive voice?

Definition: A verb is in the passive voice when its form shows that something is done to the subject or, in other words, the subject is the sufferer or receiver of the action.

Rules of Active and Passive Voice

If you want to change active voice into passive voice, read the following rules carefully:

1. Interchange the places of subject and object. Make the subject of active sentence the object of passive voice sentence, object of active sentence the subject of passive voice sentence and use ‘by’ before the object of passive voice.

2. Use the 3rd form of the verb in all passive voice sentences.

3. If there are two objects in an active sentence make one of them the subject of a passive voice sentence.

4. Use helping verbs (auxiliary verbs) according to the tense.

5. Use not after helping verbs (auxiliary verbs), in negative sentences.

6. Use auxiliary, helping verbs before the subject of passive voice in interrogative sentences.

7. Change ‘who’ into ‘by whom’.

8. If there is a personal pronoun used in an active voice sentence as a subject, then while making it the object of passive voice sentence, change it into an objective case.

9. If a personal pronoun is used in an active voice sentence as an object, then while making it the subject of a passive voice sentence, change it into a subjective case.

Subjective CaseObjective case
IMe
WeUs
YouYou
HeHim
SheHer
ItIt
TheyThem

To change “imperative sentences” into passive voice, use “Let” before the object, then “be” followed by the 3rd form. As:

(Let + object + be + 3rd form of verb)

Short Forms:

Sub                            Subject

Obj                             Object

V1                              1st form of verb

V3                              3rd form of verb

HV                              Helping verb

Adv                             adverb

Here we are going to learn how to change active voice sentences into passive voice sentences in detail.

Present Indefinite Tense

Active VoicePassive Voice
Sub +V1 + s/es + obj.Obj + HV (is,am,are) + V3 +  by + sub.
Sub + do/does + V1 + obj.Obj + HV (is,am,are) + V3 + by + sub.
Do/does + sub +V1 + obj?HV (is,am,are) + obj + V3 + by + sub?

Examples:

Active VoicePassive Voice
They draw pictures.Pictures are drawn by them.
Do they drink milk?Is the milk drunk by them?
Who boils eggs?By whom the eggs are boiled?
I do not abuse them.They are not abused by me.
I catch him by the neck.He is caught by the neck by me.
Do they win the trophy?Is the trophy won by them?
Does she catch a butterfly?Is a butterfly caught by her.
I do not stop the traffic.The traffic is not stopped by me.
She offers me a chair.I am offered a chair by her
Do they insult you?Are you insulted by them?

Present Continuous Tense

Active VoicePassive Voice
Sub + HV (is,am,are) + V1 + ing + obj.Obj + HV (is,are,are) +  being + V3 + by +  subject
Sub + HV (is,am,are) + V1 + ing + obj.Obj + HV (is,am,are) + being + V3 + by + sub
HV (is,am,are) + sub + V1 + ing + obj?HV (is,am,are) + obj + being + V3 + by + sub?

Examples:

Active VoicePassive Voice
We are doing our duty.Our duty is being done by us.
Are they singing a song?Is a song being sung by them?
Why are you eating rice?Why is rice being eaten by you?
Who is making a noise?By whom a noise is being made?
I am helping my friends.My friends are being helped by me.
He is speaking the truth.The truth is being spoken by him.
She is drawing a map.A map is being drawn by her.
The mother is boiling eggs.Eggs are being boiled by the mother.
Are you liking mangoes?Are mangoes being liked by you?
Children are playing cricket.Cricket is being played by children.

Present Perfect Tense

Active VoicePassive Voice
Sub + HV (Has,have) + V3 + obj.Obj + HV (has,have) +  been + V3 + by +  subject
Sub + HV (has,have) + V3 + obj.Obj + HV (has,have) + been + V3 + by + sub
HV (has,have) + sub + V3 + obj?HV (has,have) + obj + been + V3 + by + sub?

Examples:

Active VoicePassive Voice
We have won the match.The match has been won by us.
Has he killed the lion?Has the lion been killed by him?
I have helped my friend.My friend has been helped by me.
We have done our duty.Our duty has been done by us.
Have you like this mango?Has mango been liked by you?
He has milked the cow.The cow has been milked by him.
The teacher has punished his students.His students have been punished by the teacher.
He has not cheated me.I have not cheated by him.
She has read a novel.A novel has been read by her.
Have you copied this letter?Has this letter been copied by you?

Past Indefinite Tense

Active VoicePassive Voice
Sub + V2 + obj.Obj + HV (was,were)  + V3 + by +  subject
Sub + HV (did) + V1 + obj.Obj + HV (was,were) + V3 + by + sub
HV (Did) + sub + V1 + obj?HV (was,were) + obj + V3 + by + sub?

Examples:

Active VoicePassive Voice
The hunter killed the lion.The lion was killed by the hunter.
Did he eat an apple?Was an apple eaten by him?
Why did you help me?Why was I helped by you?
Umer Anwer made two centuries.Two centuries were made by Umer Anwer.
I did not knock at the door.The door was not knocked at by me.
Ali did not teach me English.I was not taught English by Ali.
Did he ring the bell?Was the bell rung by him?
How did he solve the sum?How was the sum solved by him?
Who ate orange?By whom the orange was eaten?
Did you kill the snake?Was a snake killed by you?

Past Continuous Tense

Active VoicePassive Voice
Sub + HV (was,were) + V1 + ing + obj.Obj + HV (was,were) +  being + V3 + by +  subject
Sub + HV (was,were) + V1 + ing + obj.Obj + HV (was,were) + being + V3 + by + sub
HV (was,were) + sub + V1 + ing + obj?HV (was,were) + obj + being + V3 + by + sub?

Example:

Active VoicePassive Voice
They were learning the poems.The poems were being learnt by them.
Was he playing hockey?Was hockey being played by him?
Who was throwing stones on the bus?By whom the stones were being thrown on the bus?
You were teaching me.I was being taught by you.
The teacher was calling the roll.The roll was being called by the teacher.
Were they not watching TV?Was TV being watched by them?
Who was ringing the bell in the assembly?By whom the bell was being rung in the assembly?
Was she sewing my shirt?My shirt was being sewn by her?
He was not taking a bath.A bath was not being taken by him.
The child was not learning his lesson.His lesson was not being learnt by the child.

Past Perfect Tense

Active VoicePassive Voice
Sub + HV (had) + adv + V3 + obj.Obj + HV (had) +  been + V3 + by +  subject
Sub + HV (had) + adv + V3 + obj.Obj + HV (had) + been + V3 + by + sub
HV (had) + sub + adv + V3 + obj?HV (had) + obj + beeb + V3 + by + sub?

Example:

Active VoicePassive Voice
He had already killed the cat.The cat had already been killed by him.
Had he seen the lion before?The lion had been seen by him before?
We had already sent the dowry.The dowry had already been sent by us.
I had taken breakfast before my brother awoke.Breakfast had been taken by me before my brother awoke.
The girls had plucked the flowers before I reached the garden.The flowers had been plucked by the girl before I reached the garden.
I had already finished my course.My course had already been finished by me.
They had decorated the room till morning. The room had been decorated by them till morning.
Who had seen the lion before?By whom had the lion been seen before?
She had already lost a ticket.A ticket had already been lost by her.
She had already saved that boy.That boy had already been saved by her.

Future Indefinite Tense

Active VoicePassive Voice
Sub + HV (will,shall) + V1 + obj.Obj + HV (will,shall) +  be + V3 + by +  subject
Sub + HV (will,shall) + V1 + obj.Obj + HV (will,shall) + be + V3 + by + sub
HV (will,shall) + sub + V1 + obj?HV (will,shall) + obj + be + V3 + by + sub?

Example:

Active VoicePassive Voice
We shall buy a house,A house will be bought by us.
Will you sing a song for me?Will a song be sung by you for me?
What will you read?What will be read by you?
I shall help him.He will be helped by me.
He will respect his parents.His parents will be respected ny him.
She will speak the truth.The truth will be spoken by her.
Will you play cricket?Will cricket be played by you?
Why will you eat ice cream?Why will the ice cream be eaten by you?
Who will throw sticks in the ground?By whom will sticks be thrown in the ground?
I shall not drink water.Water will not be drunk by me.

Future Perfect Tense

Active VoicePassive Voice
Sub + HV (will,shall + have) + V3 + obj.Obj + HV (will,shall + have) +  been + V3 + by +  subject
Sub + HV (will,shall + have) + V3 + obj.Obj + HV (will,shall +have) + been + V3 + by + sub
HV (will,shall +have ) + sub + V3 + obj?HV (will,shall + have) + obj + been + V3 + by + sub?

Examples:

Active VoicePassive Voice
You will have eaten dinner.Dinner will have been eaten by you.
They will have read the newspaper.The newspaper will have been read by them.
Who will have knocked the door?By whom will the door have been knocked?
Why will the teacher have punished the students?Why will the students have been punished by the teacher?
Will he have taught English?Will English have been taught by him?
Will she have sewn this shirt?Will this shirt have been sewn by her?
I shall have built a house.A house will have been built by me.
You will not have cleaned the school building.The school building will have been cleaned by you.
You will have helped me.I shall have been helped by you.
I shall have won the prize.The prize will have been won by me.

Imperative Sentences

Active VoicePassive Voice
First form of the verb + object.Let + object + be + 3rd form of the verb.
Don’t + 1st form of the verb + object.Let + object + not + 3rd form of the verb.

Examples:

Active VoicePassive Voice
Write a letter.Let a letter be written.
Don’t eat raw apples.Let raw apples not be eaten.
Open the door.Let the door be opened
Drink milk daily.Let milk be drunk daily.
Don’t waste your time.Let your time not be wasted.
Boil the eggs.Let the eggs be boiled.
Don’t post this letter.Let this letter not be posted.
Polish your shoes.Let your shoes be polished.
Switch off the light.Let the light be switched off.
Put out the lamp..Let the lamp be put out.
Don’t drink hot water.Let hot water not be drunk.

Mixed Sentence Examples:

Active VoicePassive Voice
We shall not follow you.You will not be followed by us.
I do not mend the shoe.The shoes will not ment by me.
Had she polished my shoes?Had my shoes been polished by her?
Pull the chain.Let the chain be pulled.
She had not poisoned your dog.Your dog had not been poisoned by her.
I was being blamed by them.They were blaming me.
These rooms are not occupied by my brothers.My brothers do not occupy these rooms.
Will my eyes be tested by the doctor?Will the doctor test my eyes?
She helps them.They are helped by her.
Help the poor.Let the poor be helped.

Hopefully, your concept about Active and Passive Voice is clear now, This lecture is part of the whole series of English Grammar by Miss Nabila Gulzar, For Other Lectures Click Here also We have an Essay on every topic, Check the complete list here. If you are Studying in Matric Free Video Lectures of MathsPhysics and English are here, and we have got you covered for I.COM Business Maths also. 

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