Verb its Kinds and Form of Verb

Verb its Kinds and Form of Verb

Verb its Kinds and Form of Verb

Definition:

A word that expresses an action of a noun is called a verb. It tells something about a person, place, thing. e.g.

  • We learn grammar.
  • I go to school.
  • The sun shines.

Kinds of Verb

There are two major kinds of the verb.

1. Principal Verbs

2. Auxiliary Verbs

1. Principal Verbs

A verb which expresses the action of a noun or pronoun is called “Principal verbs“. It has three forms.

PresentPastPast participle
ActActedActed
AriseAroseArisen
BuyBoughtBought

There are two kinds of principal verbs.

a. Transitive verb

 A verb that describes an action which passes over from the subject to an object is called a transitive verb. e.g.

  • The players hit the ball.

b. Intransitive verb

A verb that describes an action which doesn’t passes over to an object, or which expresses a state or being; as:

  • The lady laughs loudly. (action)
  • The baby sleeps. (state)
  • There is nothing on the plate. (being)

Subject Verb Agreement

Its means that verb must agree with its subject, i.e. a singular subject always takes a singular verb and a plural subject takes a plural verb; as:

  • Two and two make four. (plural subject and plural verb)
  • She eats Mango. (singular subject and singular verb)

2. Auxiliary or Helping Verbs

The verb which is used for making tense or making the sentence negative or interrogative is called an auxiliary or helping verb. This verb is used with the principal or helping verb. e.g.

  • I can drive the car.
  • Do I tell a lie?
  • He is a student.

There are the following auxiliaries or helping verbs:

To be (is, am, are, was, were, being been), has, have, had, do, does, did, shall, will, would, should, can, could, may, might, must, ought.

Mood

A simple use of a verb is to make a statement of fact or ask a question; as:

  • I like mangoes very much.
  • Who abused you?

But a verb may also be used to express a command or supposition; as:

  • Do it now.
  • If I go outside, I’ll switch off the light.

Mood is the mode or manner, in which the action described by the verb is represented. There are the following three moods in English.

1. Indicative Mood

This mood is used to make a statement of fact or to ask a question or to express supposition; as:

  • Zafar writes neatly.
  • Are you well?
  • I’ll stay, if it rains.

2. Imperative Mood

This mood expresses a command, an exhortation, an entreaty or prayers; as:

  • Open the door.
  • Be steady.
  • Have mercy upon us.

3. Subjunctive Mood

This mood expresses wish, hope, fear, doubt, condition. as:

  • I wish I were a millionaire.
  • God bless you.
  • If I go outside, I shall switch off the light.

Conjugation of Verbs

1. Irregular Forms

Regular verbs are made by adding -ed at the end of root verbs, but irregular verbs do not follow this pattern.

Here is a list of irregular verbs:

PresentPastPast Participle
AwakeAwokeAwoken
Beatbeatbeaten
BecomeBecameBecome
BeginBeganBegun
BendBentBent
BindBoundBound
BiteBitBitten
BleedBledBled
BringBroughtBrought
BurnBurntBurnt
BuyBoughtBought
CatchCaughtCaught
ChooseChoseChosen
ClingClungClung
ComeCameCome
DealDealtDealt
DigDugDug
DoDidDone
DrawDrewDrawn
Drink DrankDrunk
DriveDroveDriven
EatAteEaten
FallFellFallen
FeedFedFed
FeelFeltFelt
FingFoundFound
FleeFledFled
FlyFlewFlown
ForgetForgotForgotten
FreezeFrozeFrozen
GetGotGot, Gotten
GoWentGone
GiveGaveGiven
GrindGroundGround
GrowGrewGrown
HoldHeldHeld
HangHungHung
LeadLedLed
LendLentLent
LieLayLain
LoseLostLost
MakeMadeMade
MistakeMistookMistaken
RideRodeRidden
RingRungRung
RiseRoseRisen
RunRanRun
SeeSawSeen
SellSoldSold
ShakeShookShaken
ShineShoneShone
SingSangSung
SinkSankSunk
SitSatSat
SpeakSpokeSpoken
SpringSprangSprung
StandStoodStood
StealStoleStolen
StrikeStruckStruck
SwearSworeSworn
TakeTookTaken
TearTornTore
TellToldTold
ThinkThoughtThought
ThrowThrewThrown
WearWoreWorn
WeepWeptWept
WindWoundWound
WriteWroteWritten

2. Regular Forms

Regular verbs are formed by adding -ed at the end of a root verb to make it past and past participle. Here is a complete list of regular verbs.

PresentPastPast Participle
AbsentAbsentedAbsented
AbuseAbusedAbused
AcceptAcceptedAccepted
AccuseAccusedAccused
ActActedActed
AddAddedAdded
AdmireAdmiredAdmired
AdmitAdmittedAdmitted
AdoptAdoptedAdopted
AdviseAdvisedAdvised
AgreeAgreedAgreed
AidAidedAided
AllowAllowedAllowed
AnswerAnsweredAnswered
AppearAppearedAppeared
ApplyAppliedApplied
ArrangeArrangedArranged
ArrestArrestedArrested
AskAskedAsked
AttackAttackedAttacked
AttemptAttemptedAttempted
BakeBakedBaked
BegBeggedBegged
BehaveBehavedBehaved
BelieveBelievedBelieved
BelongBelongedBelonged
BlameBlamedBlamed
BorrowBorrowedBorrowed
BuryBuriedBuried
CallCalledCalled
CauseCausedCaused
ChaseChasedChased
ClaimClaimedClaimed
ClapClappedClapped
ClimbClimbedClimbed
ConnectConnectedConnected
ConsistConsistedConsisted
CopyCopiedCopied
CreatCreatedCreated
CrushCrushedCrushed
CureCuredCured
DareDaredDared
DeceiveDeceivedDeceived
DeclareDeclaredDeclared
DefeatDefeatedDefeated
DependDependedDepended
DescribeDescribedDescribed
DestroyDestroyedDestroyed
DisappearDisappearedDisappeared
DisappointDisappointedDisappointed
DiscoverDiscoveredDiscovered
DiscussDiscussedDiscussed
DiveDivedDived
DragDraggedDragged
DrownDrownedDrowned
EarnEarnedEarned
EducatEducatedEducated
EmployEmployedEmployed
EnableEnabledEnabled
EngageEngagedEngaged
EnlargeEnlargedEnlarged
EnterEnteredEntered
EscapeEscapedEscaped
ExciteExcitedExcited
ExcuseExcusedExcused
FadeFadedFaded
FinishFinishedFinished
FlashFlashedFlashed
FlatterFlatteredFlattered
FoldFoldedFolded
FoundFoundedFounded
GambleGambledGambled
GatherGatheredGathered
GrazeGrazedGrazed
GreetGreetedGreeted
GripGripedGriped
GuessGuessedGuessed
GuideGuidedGuided
HammerHammeredHammered
HangHangedHanged
HarmHarmedHarmed
HarvestHarvestedHarvested
HatchHatchedHatched
HateHatredHatred
HealHealedHealed
HeapHeapedHeaped
HireHiredHired
HuntHuntedHunted
ImportImportedImported
ImpressImpressedImpressed
ImproveImprovedImproved
IncreaseIncreasedIncreased
IncludeIncludedIncluded
InformInformedInformed
InheritInheritedInherited
InjureInjuredInjured
InquireInquiredInquired
InspectInspectedInspected
InsistInsistedInsisted
InventInventedInvented
InviteInvitedInvited
InvolveInvolvedInvolved
IrrigateIrrigatedIrrigated
JokeJokedJoked
JoinJoinedJoined
KickKickedKicked
KnitKnittedKnitted
KnockKnockedKnocked
LayLaidLaid
LevelLevelledLevelled
ListenListenedListened
LockLockedLocked
LooseLoosedLoosed
MarchMarchedMarched
MeasureMeasuredMeasured
MeltMeltedMelted
MigrateMigratedMigrated
MissMissedMissed
MixMixedMixed
MotionMotionedMotioned
MountMountedMounted
MournMournedMourned
NoteNotedNoted
ObeyObeyedObeyed
ObjectObjectedObjected
OccupyOccupiedOccupied
OfferOfferedOffered
OperateOperatedOperated
OpposeOpposedOpposed
OrganizeOrganizedOrganized
OwnOwnedOwned
PackPackedPacked
PardonPardonedPardoned
ParticipateParticipatedParticipated
PassPassedPassed
PayPayedPayed
PerformPerformedPerformed
PermitPermittedPermitted
PreachPreachedPreached
PretendPretendedPretended
PrintPrintedPrinted
ProgressProgressedProgressed
ProhibitProhibitedProhibited
ProtectProtectedProtected
ProtestProtestedProtested
PublishPublishedPublished
PunishPunishedPunished
QuarrellQuarrelledQuarrelled
QuestionQuestionedQuestioned
QualifyQualifiedQualified
RecognizeRecognizedRecognized
RecoverRecoveredRecovered
ReduceReducedReduced
RefuseRefusedRefused
RejectRejectedRejected
RememberRememberedRemembered
RemindRemindedReminded
RemoveRemovedRemoved
RepresentRepresentedRepresented
RescueRescuedRescued
ResignResignedResigned
RoarRoaredRoared
RobRobedRobed
SatisfySatisfiedSatisfied
ScreamScreamedScreamed
ShiverShiveredShivered
StockStockedStocked
ShoutShoutedShouted
TalkTalkedTalked
TestTestedTested
TransferTransferredTransferred
TransportTransportedTransported
TryTriedTried
TrembleTrembledTrembled
TroubleTroubledTroubled
TortureTorturedTortured
UniteUnitedUnited
UrgeUrgedUrged
VacateVacatedVacated
VomitVomitedVomited
VoteVotedVoted
WanderWanderedWandered
WantWantedWanted
WasteWastedWasted
WatchWatchedWatched

Note: The following verbs are the same in their respective forms.

PresentPastPast Perfect
BetBetBet
BurstBurstBurst
CastCastCast
CostCostCost
CutCutCut
HitHitHit
HurtHurtHurt
LetLetLet
PutPutPut
SetSetSet
ShedShedShed
ShutShutShut
SpreadSpreadSpread
SweatSweatSweat

Note: The following  are weak forms of verbs, these may be in regular or irregular forms of verbs.

PresentPastPast Participle
BendBentBent
BiteBitBit
BleadBledBled
BreedBredBred
BringBroughtBrought
BurnBurntBurnt
Buyboughtbought
CatchCaughtCaught
ClotheClothedClothed
CreepCreptCrept
CureCuredCured
DareDaredDared
DealDealtDealt
DipDippedDipped
DreamDreamedDreamed
FallFellFallen
FeedFedFed
FeelFeltFelt
FleeFledFled
Gridgirded/ Girtgirded/ Girt
Has/HaveHadHad
HearHeardHeard
KeepKeptKept
KneelKneltKnelt
LayLaidLaid
LeadLedLed
LeapLeaptLeapt
LearnLearntLearnt
LeaveLeftLeft
LickLickedLicked
LieLiedLied
LightLit/ lighted Lit/ lighted 
Likelikedliked
LoadLoaded Loaded 
LoseLostLost
MakeMadeMade
MeanMeantMeant
MeltMeltedMelted
PayPaidPaid
PickPickedPicked
PluckPluckedPlucked
PrayPrayedPrayed
ProveProvedProved
PraisePraisedPraised
SaySaidSaid
SeekSoughtSought
SellSoldSold
SendSent Sent 
SewSewedSewed
ShowShowedShowed
SleepSleptSlept
SmellSmeltSmelt
SowSowedSowed
SpendSpentSpent
SpillSpiltSpilt
TeachTaughtTaught
TellToldTold
TrustTrustedTrusted
TreatTreatedTreated
WorkWorkedWorked
WeepWeptWept

Some Common Verbs and their Nouns

VerbNoun
AchieveAchievement
AddAddition
AdviseAdvisor 
AdmitAdmission 
AgreeAgreement
AllotAllotment
ApplyApplication
AppointAppointment
ApproveApprovement
ArrangeArrangement
ArriveArrival
AstonishAstonishment
BatheBath
BehaveBehavior
BeginBeginning
BearBirth
BlessBlessing
BleedBlood
BusyBusiness
BurryBurial
ChooseChoice
ClotheCloth
CollectCollection
ConnectConnection
DevelopDevelopment
DestroyDestruction
DieDeath
DineDinner
DivideDivision
DripDrop
DriveDriver
ElectElection
EmployEmployment
EnjoyEnjoyment
FeedFood
FlowFlood
GrieveGrief
GrowGrowth
InviteInvitation
KnowKnowledge
LoseLoss
LiveLife
LaughLaughter
MoveMovement
MeetMeeting
MarryMarriage
ObjectObjection
PunishPunishment
ProposeProposal
ProveProof
RemoveRemoval
RunRace
SitSeat
SingSong
SolveSolution
SpeakSpeech
StrengthenStrength
StrikeStroke
SucceedSuccess
TellTale
ThinkThought
Translatetranslation

Tenses

A verb may refer to:

1. Present Time

2. Past Time

3. Future Time

4. A verb that denotes the present time is said to be in the Present Tense.

5. A verb that denotes the past time is said to be in the Past Tense.

6. A verb that denotes the future time is said to be in the Future Tense.

If you want to excel in Tenses then check out the ultimate guide on English Tenses by Miss Nabila Gulzar

Modal Verbs/ Modal Auxiliaries

Modal verbs are helping verbs used with other verbs to help them convey particular meanings. They exist only in association with other verbs. All these should be used with the root form of the main verb, whether to indicate the simple present or the simple past tense.

ModalsFunctionsExamples
CanAbility / inability/ permissionI can see the beach from here.
You cannot do it.
Can I talk to you? 
CouldCapability/ Permission/ request  You could solve this problem.
Could I borrow your bicycle?
Could you please explain it?
MayPermission/ prayer/ possibility/ wishMay I ask you something?
May you live long.
It may cause food poisoning.
May Allah bless you with health.
MightPermission/ Possibility/ SuggestionMight I see the patient now?
I thought it might rain now.
She might go to the party.
Mustdetermination/ necessity/ obligation/ prohibitionWe must leave it now.
She must take her medicine.
You must help each other.
She must not spend too much money.
Ought todesirability/ moral obligation/ suggestionNow I ought to go for their help.
She ought to knock before entering.
They ought to open the box.
Used toPast habitThey used to go to the park daily.
I used to play badminton.
Neednecessity/ obligationI need not explain it.
I hardly need to tell him.
Darebravery/courageThe old man dared to kill the lion.
How dare you do this.
shallconsent/ command/ futurity/ promise/ threatShall I buy this one?
You shall leave the room at once.
We shall sing a song.
We shall be rewarded.
You shall be punished, if you are late.
Willassertion/ determination/ futurity/ habit/  requestI will help you; don’t worry.
I will do it myself.
She will cook the food.
You will take nothing but a burger.
Will you please show me the way out?
Shoulddesirability/ obligation/ past obligation/ suggestionI should work hard.
You should obey your elders.
He should have to help me in trouble.
Should she feel nervous, encourage her.
Wouldcondition/ desirability/ habit/ requestIf you worked hard, you would pass.
Would that you were here!
You would walk daily.
Would you play the song again?

Finite and Non-Finite Verbs

When a verb is limited by a person and number, it is called a “Finite Verb” such as:

  • I went to the store.
  • He took the book that was on the table.

when a verb is not limited by a person and number, it is called “Non Finite Verb” such as:

  • To err is human.
  • She refused to obey the orders.

The finite verb forms are as follows:

1. Participles

2. Gerund

3. Infinitives

1. Participles

A word that is used as an adjective to modify nouns and pronouns is called “participle”.

(a) Present Participle

All present participles end in -ing:

  • The laughing lady
  • The falling leaves
  • The stinging remark

(b) Past Participle

All  ‘past participles’ of the regular verbs end in-ed:

  • The tired dancer
  • The injured
  • The cracked vase

However regular verbs have various past participle endings (such as; thrown, ridden, eaten, built, bought and gone).

(c) Perfect Participle

The perfect participles are formed as :having + past participle.

  • Having learnt the lesson
  • Having gained knowledge

Learn The Uses and Errors of Participles

2. Gerund

 A word which ends in-ing, and has the function of a noun is a ‘Gerund’.

Examples:

  • Painting is good fun.
  • I like painting.
  • My favorite hobby is painting.

In these sentences painting is doing the work of a noun forming the subject, object and complement.

The Use of Gerund

 A gerund being a verb-noun may be used:

Subject of a verb; as:

Swimming is my favorite hobby.

Object of a transitive verb; as:

I like reading books.

Object of a preposition; as:

I am tired of working.

Complement of a verb; as:

What she likes best is painting.

As a compound noun:

A flying airplane.

Learn The Uses and Errors of Gerund

3. Infinitives

The infinitive verb is a kind of a noun, but it acts like the base of a verb.

Examples:

  • Birds love to sing.
  • Many people desire to collect money quickly.

Note: The word “to” is used with the infinitive. However “to” is not used with certain words such as: bid, let, need, dare, see, hear, etc.

The Use of Infinitives

To qualify a verb: as;

We came to live here.

To qualify an object: as;

Dates are good to eat.

To qualify a noun: as;

It is not the time to sleep.

To qualify a sentence: as;

To tell the lie.

He often forgot his promise.

Learn The Uses and Errors of Infinitives

Hopefully, your concept about Verb its Kinds and Form of Verb is clear now, This lecture is part of the whole series of English Grammar by Miss Nabila Gulzar, For Other Lectures Click Here also We have an Essay on every topic, Check the complete list here. If you are Studying in Matric Free Video Lectures of MathsPhysics and English are here, and we have got you covered for I.COM Business Maths also. 

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